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    William Blythe and the Graphene Oxide Application Experts

    William Blythe and the Graphene Oxide Application Experts

    After a 12 month development programme, William Blythe launched their GOgraphene webshop to supply research scale quantities of graphene oxide to the market. Just over 6 months later, William Blythe is now seeking to not only increase their graphene oxide capacity, but also to start working with leaders in the field on developing application enhanced grades of graphene oxide.

    Over the past few weeks, William Blythe have attended several graphene oxide and 2D material related events throughout Europe, listening to the requirements of the exciting technologies graphene oxide is being applied in. A recent event at the National Graphene Institute (NGI) in Manchester, UK, gave the opportunity for one of William Blythe’s Development Chemists to present on our graphene oxide. Looking at how the project was conceived through to commercialisation and next steps, the presentation allowed the attending researchers, both academic and industrial, to learn more about how William Blythe can help to develop and commercialise the materials they need.

    Our team will continue to attend events to learn more about industry requirements, with the next one scheduled for the 21st June, also at the NGI. If you are holding an event and would like William Blythe to participate, please send us the details.

    Graphene Oxide in Aerogels for Air Purification

    Graphene Oxide in Aerogels for Air Purification

    Air pollution is an increasing issue for people around the globe, especially those living in large cities. While the drive to swap to cleaner, greener technologies and alternatives grows, there is still a need to offer air purification in many technology areas. The issues of air purity affect not only the outdoor environment, but also indoors. The building, its decoration and the local levels of Radon gas can all impact the air quality inside buildings.


    A 2015 paper by Xiong et al worked on combining absorption with photocatalysis. The concept was to increase the concentration of pollutants around a photocatalyst by absorbing them onto an adjacent surface. The photocatalytic oxidation process would then regenerate the absorbent, preventing the surface from becoming saturated and a “one use only” technology.


    Their research focussed on the development of a graphene aerogel combined with titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is well known for its photocatalytic activity while graphene aerogels are of great interest due to their exceptionally high surface area. The group added the titanium oxide to a graphene oxide dispersion and then went on to functionalise the graphene oxide by reacting it with ethylenediamine before converting it into an aerogel. The group found that the shape of the aerogel was easily directed by the shape of the vessel it was formed in, offering great flexibility for creating air purification cartridges. At the time of publication, while the group had confirmed that the desired material could be made, further work was still needed to understand the purification capability of the TiO2/graphene aerogel.


    If you would be interested in using graphene oxide in your research, please get in touch.


    Procedia Engineering, 2015, 121, 957 – 960

    Graphene oxide: The Benefits of Buying

    Graphene oxide: The Benefits of Buying

    Graphene oxide was first reported in the literature over 150 years ago, at a time when there was little interest in exploring the benefits of the material in the multitude of application areas it is currently being used in. Interest in graphene oxide rose dramatically with the discovery of, and Nobel prize for, graphene. The subsequent years have seen the use of graphene oxide in a diverse range of applications, with many researchers focussing on graphene oxide as a potential precursor material for graphene with specific graphene oxide applications now under development.

    With no suppliers, initial graphene oxide researchers were unable to purchase graphene oxide and therefore synthesised all of their own material. Despite multiple graphene oxide suppliers launching a variety of products for this market in the past few years, some researchers are still undecided as to whether they should purchase or make their own graphene oxide for their work. While William Blythe understand that there are always reasons to synthesise your own graphene oxide, we have tried to overcome some of the most common concerns around purchase with our GOgraphene webshop.

    Consistent quality 

    William Blythe are aware that some suppliers do not offer a consistent product. As an established chemicals manufacturer with over 150 years’ experience supplying chemicals, we ensure our graphene oxide meets the same high standards as our other products before we dispatch your order.

    Flexibility

    Buying from someone else will always reduce some of the flexibility compared to in house synthesis. William Blythe have tried to overcome this by offering multiple product forms, developing a high concentration dispersion which can be easily diluted and by taking requests for custom functionalisation of our standard material.

    Availability 

    To keep results comparable, most researchers do not want to swap materials supply part way through their research programme. We monitor our stock levels carefully to make sure we always have enough of our graphene oxide to fulfil our orders. Keep an eye on our lead times if you have any concerns

    Volume 

    Graphene oxide is currently only available for purchase online in relatively low quantities. Some researchers are concerned that the raw materials availability will prevent their application from being scalable. As William Blythe has already developed scale-up plans, this need not be a concern. Not only is our process is scalable, but within 12 months of demand projections requiring it, William Blythe can scale on to a dedicated multi-tonne production facility.

    Price 

    Some materials suppliers fluctuate their prices, meaning there are some researchers who do not want to become reliant on a materials supplier. The graphene oxide available on the GOgraphene webshop has never been increased in price. Depending on the currency you are purchasing in, the screen may display slight variations, however our GBP pricing has not been increased since launch.

    We hope that the above helps to alleviate some of the concerns which we know exist in the marketplace. If you have other concerns or questions regarding purchase versus in house synthesis, please get in touch. There are a host of benefits to purchasing graphene oxide, including saving time and removing the need for hazardous synthesis. If you are ready to switch to buying graphene oxide, please take a look at our current product portfolio.

    Raman Spectroscopy Proves the Presence of Single Layer Graphene Oxide

    Raman Spectroscopy Proves the Presence of Single Layer Graphene Oxide

    Raman spectroscopy has been used to prove William Blythe's graphene oxide readily disperses into monolayers.

    Raman spectroscopy is a well-known and very common technique for the analysis of graphene related materials. By assessing the position, intensity and ratios of the D and G peaks, it is possible to learn a lot about the material in question. Useful information from raman spectroscopy include the level of oxidation and whether the graphene oxide is present as single, double or few layer material. The ratio of the D and G peak intensities (ID/IG) can be used to estimate the distance between defects, where the term defects refers to disruption in the bonding structure observed for pristine graphene. When analysing graphene oxide, the number of defects is expected to be high as each oxygen functional group on the surface increases the amount of sp3 hybridisation and therefore reduces sp2 hybridisation.


    Recent raman spectroscopy carried out on William Blythe’s graphene oxide proved that the material was fully oxidised with an ID/IG ratio of about 1, which is fairly typical for graphene oxide. An estimation of the number of layers present can be given by comparing the area of the D and G peaks to the area of the silicon substrate peak (ca 950 cm-1). Coupling with an SEM image and applying false colour, it has been possible to illustrate the presence of large quantities of single layer graphene oxide. While some 2 layer and 3+ layer material is present, based on the flake shapes and the nature of spin coating, it is thought that these areas are more likely to be flake overlaps rather than multilayer graphene oxide.


    The raman analysis carried out on William Blythe’s graphene oxide shows that the graphene oxide manufactured readily exfoliates into monolayers in aqueous dispersions. This has previously been indicated by the ease of dilution. If you have any questions about this analysis or how you can incorporate graphene oxide into your work, please get in touch.

    Do you have a paper to suggest for GOgraphene to feature in their blog?

    Do you have a paper to suggest for GOgraphene to feature in their blog?

    Have you recently seen a paper related to graphene oxide research that you think the GOgraphene team would be interested in sharing?


    The GOgraphene team have started posting entries to the GOgraphene blog about papers they have found particularly interesting, be that for the promising results achieved by the researchers, the application area focussed on or the approach taken to the research.

    As a company, William Blythe has a strong history of manufacturing products to tight specifications for multiple applications, with materials tuned for their specific end use. By comparison to the existing William Blythe portfolio, graphene oxide is therefore fairly unique. While the material can be tuned for specific applications through both functionalisation and physical property manipulation, the requirements of graphene oxide in each application are not yet well understood. As a result, graphene oxide is considered applicable to many research areas in its standard form. This results in a huge diversity of application sectors interested in graphene oxide materials.


    The GOgraphene team like to stay up to date with graphene oxide research which is being carried out across the globe and have taken to writing brief overviews of some of their favourite pieces. The team are always looking to increase both the breadth and depth of their application knowledge around this material, so if you would like to recommend a paper to the team please let us know – if we really like it we might even include it in a future blog post!