FREE GLOBAL SHIPPING on all orders over £375
0 Cart
Added to Cart
    You have items in your cart
    You have 1 item in your cart
    Check Out Continue Shopping

    News — Graphene

    Blog Menu
    GOpublications: Anticancer Properties of Graphene Oxide Demonstrated in Bone Cancer Treatment

    GOpublications: Anticancer Properties of Graphene Oxide Demonstrated in Bone Cancer Treatment

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a common type of bone cancer, typically found in the long bones of the arms and legs. This disease is most prevalent among children and elderly populations, and is characterised by a shockingly low survival rate of 20 %, post metastasis. Two genes, insulin growth factor 1 (IGF1) and the insulin growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), have been named the main culprits responsible for the tumorigenesis of OS. Normally, these genes work in tandem to regulate cell proliferation by controlling apoptosis, the cell death mechanism. However, in the case of OS patients, these mechanisms fail, resulting in tumour formation.

    Current treatment plans for OS involve surgery followed by chemotherapy. However, existing chemotherapy drugs such as cisplatin and doxorubicin, consistently fail to specifically target cancer cells, resulting in systemic toxicity which in turn leads to the development of undesired side effects such as hair loss and skin problems. Thus, a markedly low survival rate coupled with the limitations of presently available chemotherapy drugs has created an urgent need for a more specific, but less toxic chemotherapy drug formulation.

    Researchers at the University of Atlanta have looked to graphene oxide (GO), previously proven to exhibit low toxicity but also a high relative selectivity for cancer cells. In this study, researchers compared the toxicity of William Blythe GO on human OS cell lines, both with and without the implicated IGF1 and IGFBP3 genes, with the healthy osteoblast cell line hFOB1.19. All cell lines were treated to 0, 20 and 50 micrograms of GO, and left to incubate for 30 minutes, 2 hours, 4 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. Morphological changes were then observed under an inverted microscope.

    Micrographs of OS cell lines showed evidence of cell disorientation, cell disordering and cell debris, all resulting from GO induced apoptosis (cell death). Generally, GO induced apoptosis was highest in OS cell lines with knocked out IGF1 and IGFBP3 genes and when subjected to longer incubation times of 24 and 48 hours and when exposed to higher GO concentrations. Overall, observed morphological changes were more significant in OS cell lines compared to the normal osteoblast cell line hFOB1.19, proving GO to be selectively more toxic to OS cells. The cytotoxic effects of GO the cancerous cells demonstrated in this study could lead to future development towards the use of GO in the treatment of OS, with the next step being ­in vivo studies.  

    If you would like to know more about this application or are in need of advice on how our GO can help you, please get in touch with our Business Development Manager, Mike Butler, or visit our website.

    Journal of cancer, 2020, 11, 17, pp. 5007 - 5023

    New Metrology Service to Advance the Commercialisation of Graphene

    New Metrology Service to Advance the Commercialisation of Graphene

    This month the team at William Blythe saw the launch of the latest addition to the UK's powerhouse in 2D materials advancements with the new graphene characterisation service. Created by the National Physics Laboratory (NPL) and the National Graphene Insitute (NGI), this service aims to act as a key link between research and industrialisation by providing an independent and trusted analytical service by two of the world leading institutes in graphene metrology. Hosted at the House of Commons, the prestige of this event further supports the importance that graphene will play in the development of solutions to global challenges in the future. On display were graphene containing products demonstrating its wide applicability into industry including composites for lightweight aircrafts, energy storage devices for automotive electrification and even energy saving lightbulbs.

    Whilst it is very positive that graphene is beginning to enter the market at such an early stage since it’s discovery, the variability of graphene materials should always be considered when planning a research program. Many physical and chemical properties such as lateral sheet size, oxygen content and number of layers can have a large influence on the unique properties of graphene, such as its electronic conductivity and strength. Techniques like AFM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy are key in probing these parameters, and it’s these that are expected to be included within the service. When amalgamated, this data can then be used to determine whether a certain graphene material is suited for a specific application, for example a highly pure and pristine graphene can be crucial for electronic applications. The Graphene Characterisation Service is expected to be a first point of contact for the independent verification of the characteristics for a commercial graphene material, and more can be found out by following visiting NPL's website. If you’d like to explore which type of graphene is favourable for your application, then please do get in touch.

    Graphene City: Manchester’s Silicon Valley of Science

    Graphene City: Manchester’s Silicon Valley of Science

    Silicon Valley - the birthplace of tech superpowers Apple and Google, an innovation hub where the worlds elite software developers, accountants, designers and investors are localised, seeking out collaboration to create the next big App or device. It is this type of environment that James Baker, CEO of the £60m Graphene Engineering Innovation Centre (GEIC), is aiming to establish in Manchester for the next generation of graphene and advanced materials-based products.

    Graphene is a 2D hexagonal array of carbon atoms that is the strongest and thinnest material known to man. It was first isolated at the University of Manchester in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, who were awarded a noble prize for their work with the material six years later. Now in 2018, graphene has become one of the most researched substances in modern science. Graphene’s unique set of record breaking properties opens a landscape of potential applications spanning from biomedical, membrane technologies, polymer composites and in energy storage devices, to name a few.

    To accelerate the development of these applications, the University of Manchester constructed a centre dedicated to graphene research, the National Graphene Institute. Already we’re seeing start-ups sprouting from this environment, such as the award winning Eksagon Ltd, who are focussing on utilising graphene in clean energy applications. The GEIC is the next step in the scale up of graphene and 2D materials, with pilot plant facilities for composites, inks, membranes and energy storage applications. Alongside this, events will be hosted that bring together north west based companies to engage with these new disruptive technologies and help establish supply chains within the area. ‘Graphene City’ has already attracted hundreds of academics to the city to work on advanced materials, but it is expected that the industrialisation of these materials will help create many more jobs for locals in the north west. It may be bold to claim that the rise of graphene has sparked the next industrial revolution in Manchester, however it is already clear that this science is making waves throughout the city and will continue to do so in years to come. If you would like to find out more about graphene, please do get in touch.

    Graphene 2017 – “There Are Years That Ask Questions and Years That Answer”

    Graphene 2017 – “There Are Years That Ask Questions and Years That Answer”

    The “wonder material” graphene is a 2D hexagonal array of carbon atoms that possesses a number of remarkable and record-breaking properties. Since its first isolation in 2004, a vast amount of research has explored the fundamental physics and potential applications for the world’s first 2D material, and in doing so achieving global acclaim. Now in its teenage years, we are witnessing the maturing of graphene applications. There are graphene-composite products already publicly available, and many more disruptive technologies now becoming closer to commercialisation. This article summarises the pivotal graphene stories of 2017.

    A Nature publication made global headlines in November for its use of “graphene balls” as a novel advanced anode for lithium ion batteries in mobile phones. The material consists of silica particles coated with a layer of graphene, enhancing the energy capacity by 45% and charging rate by 5 times, equating to a fully charged phone in just 12 minutes! This is just one of the hundreds of studies conducted that utilises graphene to improve the performance of batteries and supercapacitors for energy storage applications. Researchers at the University of Sussex proved that the battery is not the only component of mobile devices that graphene can enhance. Here, graphene and silver nanowires were coated onto acrylic plastic to produce a highly conductive, flexible screen. This is one of the contenders in the race to replace the brittle indium tin oxide screens used in our mobile phones today. It can be noted that this research is very fresh, which poses the question - can this technology be industrially scaled? And if so how many years will it be before flexible phones with a 12-minute charge are commercially available?

    Not only is graphene highly conductive, it is also the strongest material known to man. This property was utilised by scientists at MIT to create a material that was 10 times stronger than steel, whilst possessing only 5% of its density. In this study, 2D graphene sheets were compressed and heated to form a 3D structure that could be used as a lightweight replacement for steel in construction and infrastructure. This breakthrough may even spark the imagination of those in the field of aerospace. The material’s extremely low density would enable easier transport into space, allowing for the interplanetary construction of space stations and colonies at a much lower cost.

    The use of graphene oxide in water purification technology has also been a subject of much interest over the past year. Whilst it is common knowledge that graphene oxide has selective permeation to water, researchers at Hubei University have designed an alternative solar powered route to purify water. This technology uses a graphene oxide aerogel, which when exposed to sunlight can heat up water to 45 oC. This gives rise to a quicker evaporation process through the highly porous aerogel structure. This steam can then be condensed as pure water through a low energy method. It is unknown if this process is economically viable at an industrial scale, and further work to increase the heat conductivity may be required.

    Although the majority of these stories describe the advancement of graphene technologies, 2017 was also the year that launched a number of exciting commercial products. Joining the likes of graphene enhanced bicycle tyres, skis and fishing rods was an ultralight, high-performance watch, the RM50-03. Produced by Richard Mille and McLaren F1 in collaboration with the University of Manchester, this product may open the door for the development of graphene applications in the automotive industry in years to come. One crucial area that needs to be considered for the commercialisation of all graphene technologies is the materials availability, and it’s here where the expertise of William Blythe comes into play. The GOgraphene team at William Blythe are committed to the development and scaling-up of our graphene products, and pride ourselves in our abilities to work with our customers to optimise their technologies. If you would like to learn more about how graphene can be utilised in your applications, please do get in touch.