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    Co-administration of Graphene Oxide and Cisplatin

    Co-administration of Graphene Oxide and Cisplatin

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in both men and women. Annually, there are more deaths from lung cancer alone than from colon, prostate and breast cancer combined. Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat lung cancer cells by destroying rapidly dividing cells by damaging nuclear DNA.

    Research published in the American Chemical Society investigates the effect of co-administrating graphene oxide nanoplatelets with cisplatin for the treatment of human lung cancer A459 cells. The presence of oxygen containing functional groups on the surface of graphene oxide increase solubility, dispersibility and biocompatibility. These properties make graphene oxide suitable for use as drug carriers in drug delivery and in live cell imaging. The co-administration of graphene oxide with cisplatin showed a decrease in the percentage of viable cancer cells when compared to cisplatin alone. As the concentration of cisplatin was increased, the effect of graphene oxide co-administration on cell viability was greater. This research highlights the possibility of graphene oxide use extending into the pharmaceutical industry.

    This application is just one of many studied by academic groups to utilise the unique properties of graphene oxide. If you have any enquiries about the applications of graphene oxide or how it can improve your existing applications, please get in touch and one of the GOgraphene team will be happy to help.

    Langmuir, 2019, 35, 3176−3182

    Graphene Oxide in Wound Regeneration

    Graphene Oxide in Wound Regeneration

    Hemocompatibility describes the interaction between a foreign substance and blood. It is considered one of the most important issues in tissue engineering. A collaboration between Assuit University, Stockholm University and Kangwon National University demonstrated that hemolysis assays on graphene oxide showed no hemolytic effect (destruction of red blood cells). Sonication of graphene oxide suspension increases the zeta potential which increases the dispersion stability. Cell attachment and rapid division of cells is supported by the ultrasonicated graphene oxide because of its cytocompatibility. It also promotes formation of new bone.

    Research published in Materials Science and Engineering showed that ultrasonicated graphene oxide is biocompatible with human foetal osteoblast cells, human endothelial cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The study showed that cell proliferation measured by optical density was most efficient in the epithelial wound using 1% ultrasonicated graphene oxide when compared to a control. The wound showed the most improvement when compared on day 1 to day 3.

    Studying osteoblast growth and activity with ultrasonicated graphene oxide showed that it enhances the cell adhesion and proliferation. This is because graphene oxide acts as a scaffold for the regeneration of bone tissue.

    This research serves as another great example of how graphene oxide has the potential to enable a diverse range of innovations and applications. The graphene oxide supplied through GOgraphene is being used in both academic and industrial research in many sectors. If you are interested in using graphene oxide in your research, please let us know and a member of the team will be happy to help you.

    Materials Science & Engineering, C, 2019, 94, 484–492

    RSC Adv., 2015,5, 10782-10789 

    Graphene Oxide in Slow Release Fertilisers

    Graphene Oxide in Slow Release Fertilisers

    With the growth in the global population there is a greater requirement in the production of crops to meet this demand. In the development of crops, micronutrients (such as zinc and copper) in the form of fertilisers are required to optimise plant growth. Standard fertilisers are usually water-soluble salts containing sulfates which can be affected by leaching or run-off, particularly in high rainfall locations. As a result of the fast release, large volumes of these fertilisers are required to provide sufficient nutrients to the plants but results in higher costs due to the inefficiency as well as potential environmental issues.

    Research carried out by the University of Adelaide has demonstrated the use of graphene oxide as high capacity carriers of micronutrients for use in slow-release fertilisers. Graphene oxide has a very high surface area and large quantities of oxygen functional groups on the surface of the sheet. Electrostatic interactions from the oxygen functionalities allows metal nutrients to bind to the graphene oxide sheets, with the high surface area resulting in large loading quantities. The results of the study showed highly desirable release rates, with initial fast release followed by a slow, sustained rate. This mechanism of release is favourable, particularly in environments where seedlings require larger initial quantities of micronutrients followed by a slower uptake as they grow.

     

    This application is just one of many that utilise the unique properties of graphene and graphene oxide and further demonstrates the wide range of potential uses. If you have any enquiries about the applications of graphene oxide or how it can improve your existing applications, please get in touch and one of the GOgraphene team will be happy to help.

     

    ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2017, 9, 43325−43335

    FTIR Analysis of Graphene Oxide

    FTIR Analysis of Graphene Oxide

    Recently, our GOgraphene powder was characterised by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR). In these measurements, infrared light is passed into an ATR crystal to reflect against the sample with a short penetration depth to minimise noise in the spectrum as graphene oxide is a 2D material. The material is then scanned over several angles of incidence and the refracted beam is detected to give the spectra across 600-4000 cm-1. The peaks shown in the spectrum indicate the characteristic bond vibrations between elements in the sample. For more information, please visit our analytical data page.

    If there is any additional information on FTIR, or other analytical data that you feel would be beneficial for your research, please get in touch through our enquiry form and one of the GOgraphene team will be in touch.

    Electronically Controlled Graphene Oxide Membranes

    Electronically Controlled Graphene Oxide Membranes

    The control of water permeation rates though membranes is an important factor in the water purification industry as well as in the medical field. Members of the National Graphene Institute have recently published an article in Nature outlining a membrane primarily consisting of graphene oxide with electronically controlled permeation. The researchers installed conductive filaments into the graphene oxide membranes which was prepared onto a porous silver substrate. Graphene oxide is an insulating material, so a gold thin film (10 nm) was deposited onto the surface to provide the conductivity. Layers of graphene oxide then create channels in which the water can pass. Between the layers of graphene oxide, the water molecules become ionised through the application of current in the gold thin film which then repels the flow of water through the membrane. The team identified a correlation between the applied current, rather than voltage, with permeation rate as the voltage required to maintain the current varied. By utilising this information, the level of permeation was able to be varied through control of the applied current, from ‘ultrafast’ to complete blockage.

    This application is just one of many studied by academic groups to utilise the unique properties of graphene oxide and highlights the importance that graphene and graphene oxide materials will have on technology in the near future. If you have any enquiries about the applications of graphene oxide or how it can improve your existing applications, please get in touch and one of the GOgraphene team will be happy to help.

    Nature, 2018, 559, 236-240